Learn Chinese for Free—Lesson 30

Lesson 30 of 360

Today's Chinese characters:

今明天

You're going to learn a very important piece of grammar: the use of time words as an adverbial adjunct.

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Characters' Essentials

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jīn
Meaning Help
Now, today
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míng
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-[noun] Immediately following in time
-[adjective] Clear, distinct
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tiān
Meaning Help
Day

Description and Examples

Word
Pronunciation Help
jīn   ­tiān   ­
Meaning Help
Today
Word
Pronunciation Help
jīn   ­nián   ­
Meaning Help
This year
Word
Pronunciation Help
míng   ­tiān   ­
Meaning Help
Tomorrow; near future
Word
Pronunciation Help
míng   ­nián   ­
Meaning Help
Next year
Word
Pronunciation Help
míng   ­   ­
Meaning Help
Tomorrow; near future
Word
Pronunciation Help
míng   ­zǎo   ­
Meaning Help
Tomorrow morning
Word
Pronunciation Help
xīng   ­   ­tiān   ­
Meaning Help
Sunday (colloquial form)


Dialogue 23

A:
老师今天
B:

Sentence Structure 21
Adverbial Adjuncts

An adverbial adjunct is used to modify a verb or an adjective. Adverbs, adjectives, time words and prepositional constructions can all be used as an adverbial adjunct. They usually precede the part which is being modified.

Examples of adverbs used as an adverbial adjunct

他们

他们:
Subject
:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Verb

:
Subject
:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Adjective

Example of time word used as an adverbial adjunct

他们今天

他们:
Subject
今天:
Adverbial adjunct
:
Verb

Sentence Structure 22
Time Words used as adverbial adjuncts

Time words are nouns or numeral-measure compounds indicating time.

They may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as adverbial adjuncts.

When used as an adverbial adjunct, time words generally come before the main element of the predicate.

Example

他们今天

Anyway, when special emphasis is laid on the time words, they may be shifted before the subject to the beginning of the sentence.

Example

今天他们
(emphasis on 今天)


Sentence Structure 23
Nominal Predicate Sentence—Part 1

The sentence with a nominal predicate is a sentence in which the main element of the predicate is a noun, a nominal construction or a compound consisting of a numeral and a measure word.

In the affirmative sentence, is not used ( is used in the sentence with a verbal predicate).

This type of sentence is mainly used to show time, age, one's birthplace, and quantity.

Example

今年2001

今年:
Subject
2001:
Nominal Predicate

Dialogue 24

A:
今天三月
B:
今天三月明天三月
A:
明早
B:
明早

The meaning of: 明早见!

再见 (literally: again-see) means "see you again". Similarly, 明早 (literally: tomorrow morning-see) means "see you tomorrow morning".


Sentence Structure 24
Time Words used as subjects

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as subjects.

Example

今天三月

今天:
Subject

Sentence Structure 25
Time Words used as predicates

Here we pay special attention to the use of time words as predicates.

Example

今天三月

三月:
Nominal Predicate

Sentence Structure 26
Time Words used as modifiers

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as modifiers.

Example

明年今天

明年:
modifier

Sentence Structure 27
Time Words used as headwords in a "的" structure

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as headwords in a "" structure.

Example

明年今天

今天:
headword

Dialogue 25

A:
今天星期四
B:
今天星期四明天星期四

Sentence Structure 28
Nominal Predicate Sentence—Part 2

The negative form of a nominal predicate sentence is made by using between the subject and the predicate, resulting in a sentence with a verbal predicate at the same time.

Examples

十二月星期五
今天


Sentence Structure 29
Time Words used as objects

Time words may be used as subjects, objects, predicates, modifiers, headwords in a "" structure, complements, or adverbial adjuncts. Here we pay special attention to their use as objects.

Example

今天星期天

星期天:
object


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Lesson 30 of 360

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WearYourChineseName - By Giuseppe Romanazzi
Biaoyu Business Consulting Services LTD
Shanghai, China
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